The Winfield State Hospital opened initially in 1881 on the University of Kansas campus but soon relocated to the town of Winfield in 1887, receiving the name change "The Kansas State Asylum for Idiotic and Imbecile Youth" and had thirty-one students. This was the first Kansas state institution. Winfield State Hospital History
"The Long Road Toward the Right Thing to Do
" by Frederick D. Seaton
Parsons State Hospital first opened in 1903 as a State Hospital for Epileptics. Parsons State Hospital History
A marriage restriction law was passed in 1903 that made it illegal to marry someone deemed to be “feeble-minded” as well as other conditions deemed to be undesirable for producing offspring.
In 1913, the Kansas legislature passed the first sterilization law in the state. Nationwide, the Eugenics movement professed forced sterilization of persons with intellectual disabilities as a method for improving the human race. Forced sterilizations in Kansas actually predated this law back to the early years of Winfield State Hospital. Information about Kansas Eugenics Movement
Sterilization continued until the early 1950s with 2851 patients including 779 who were classified as feeble minded.
Norton State Hospital was first established by the Kansas Legislature in 1913 as a sanatorium for tubercular patients. Kansas State Tuberculosis Sanatorium
Waiting list is established at Parsons State Hospital.
Kansas law prohibiting marriage of “epileptics, imbecile, feeble-minded, or insane” was established.
In 1930, Hattie Starkey, a public school teacher, opened her home to students with disabilities. She started with two students, both of whom had physical and developmental disabilities. In no time at all, word spread of the makeshift school, and Ray and Hattie Starkey ended up moving several times to larger and larger homes in Wichita “where more leaves could be put in the dining room table.” At its height, the home-based school accommodated as many as 40 students in a basement classroom. Starkey School
The Institute of Logopedics, now Heartspring, was founded in 1934 by Dr. Martin F. Palmer on the fourth floor of Jardine Hall at the University of Wichita, within the Department of Speech Sciences. The Institute would eventually become a residential school serving thousands of children and adults with communication disorders, including many persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities. http://www.heartspring.org/history/timeline
1949 – Special Education Division was created in the Kansas State Department of Education.
1951 – First State appropriation for reimbursement of school district special education programs.
The ARC of Sedgwick County was established in 1953 by parents who had children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. More History
In 1957 the hospital was renamed Parsons State Hospital and Training Center and began providing programs for individuals with mental retardation. Parsons State Hospital History
Kansas Neurological Institute opened in 1960 in response to a legislative mandate to provide for "the evaluation, treatment and care of the mentally retarded, training of personnel and for research into causes and prevention and proper methods of treatment and training of mentally retarded children." Kansas Neurological Institute History
I Pioneer period 1960-1970s
The focus on the education of consumers, the driving force was parent advocacy and the county played a key role in creating Community Mental Retardation Facilities.
Local leadership and national trends shaped state policy making. This era was mission driven and had low expectations for funding.
Wichita Training Center for the Retarded, which eventually became Kansas Elks Training Center for the Handicapped (KETCH) was founded in 1962 by the same group of parents that founded the ARC of Sedgwick County. Their purpose was to create a program that served adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities with an emphasis on job training and employment. KETCH information
1961 – The public school system served nearly 1830 of the estimated 11,000 school age educable MR children in Kansas. There were 180 of the estimated 1760 school age trainable MR children served in Kansas.
1963 – Governor Anderson appointed a Council on Mental Retardation.
1965 – There were 9 licensed community MR/DD centers in Kansas. That number would grow to 21 within 2 years.
In 1967, the name of the Kansas sanatorium for tubercular patients located at Norton, Kansas, was changed to the Norton state hospital.
1968 – There were 4 state institutions, 1 vocational rehabilitation unit, 29 child development centers, 9 rehabilitation and work activity centers, 2 private residential centers, 21 group homes, 347 special education classrooms and 26 licensed community MR/DD centers in Kansas.
Kansas Association of Rehabilitation Facilities (KARF) was established in 1969 by a small group of organizations that provided services to individuals with developmental disabilities. In 1996, KARF changed its name to InterHab. InterHab information
The Occupational Center of Central Kansas (OCCK Inc) started providing services in Apr. of 1970
Cerebral Palsy Research Foundation was founded in 1972. Cerebral Palsy Research Foundation Information
Rainbows United, Inc. was founded in 1972 as a developmental training center for children with severe, multiple disabilities that were ineligible for special education services provided through the public schools. In the 1970's, when legislation required public schools to provide services to all children of school age regardless of their disability, Rainbows began focusing on delivery of early intervention services to children below school age. Rainbows United History
1970 – Intermediate Care Facilities for persons with Mental Retardation (ICF/MR) were authorized under Medicaid.
1970 – The first Kansas Special Olympics was held in Parsons.
1970 – The number of licensed community MR/Developmental Disability (DD) centers in Kansas grew to 30.
1971 – There were 2,000 clients in institutions and 250 in community programs.
1971 – There were 42 local Kansas ARC chapters totaling more than 2,500 members.
1971 - There were 36 total licensed community MR/DD centers in the state.
1973 Training and Evaluation Center for the Handicapped TECH started in Hutchinson KS.
1974 State Statutes K.S.A. 72-961 Kansas mandated special education with the Exceptional Children’s Act in 1974 one year before the federal legislation
1974 saw the enactment of legislation that established Community Mental Retardation Centers. It established a mechanism for state grants for funding community services as well as allowing counties to levy local taxes to fund programs. Duties and powers were granted to establish a system of services and supports. KSA 65-4413
1975 – The State implemented the Title XX program.
1975 – State Vocational Rehabilitation Services began requiring agencies to be accredited if they were to receive funds.
1977 – State law limiting marriages of “epileptics, imbecile, feeble-minded, or insane” was repealed.
1977 – Title XX funds to local agencies were reduced by 60%.
1978 – Licensing and certification standards for programs serving persons with MR/DD were adopted.
During the transition year (1980-1995) we saw the influence of national professional standards which created stronger community MR/DD programs. There was a significant increase in the community programs providing more residential services. There was and increased emphasis on vocational needs of people with developmental disabilities.
1980 – The Civil Rights of Institutional Persons Act is passed.
1980 – Kansas ranked 12 of 17 states in per capita support of community-based MR/DD services.
1981 – Federal reduction in the Title XX program occurred. Title XIX was amended to allow the use of Medicaid.
1982 – Title XX under the Social Security Act became the Social Service Block Grant program.
1982 – Kansas’ application to offer community-based services under Title XX was approved.
1984 was the first year that HCBS funds were used in Kansas
1984 The Kansas Association of Rehabilitation Facilities
Started a task force on Supported Employment to study and develop a plan for the state.
1984 Cottonwood in Lawrence started an enclave packaging dog food at a host company site
In 1989, Norton State Hospital was closed and converted to a correctional facility.
The Americans with Disabilities Act was passed. The law prohibits the exclusion of individuals with disabilities from everyday activities.
Starting in 1990 community services for persons with I/DD were greatly expanded through innovative use of the Home and Community Based Services Waiver. New federal funds accessed through the waiver were matched with existing state funds that were used to fund existing services. Through “re-financing” existing state funded services with HCBS waiver services, excess state funds were re-invested to serve persons on the waiting list. For every person in services transferred to the waiver, another unserved person was able to be served from the waiting list. Through two rounds of refinancing, the waiting list was eliminated.
The Kansas Legislature passed the Developmental Disability Reform Act in 1995. Sedgwick County formally formed its Community Developmental Disability Organization (CDDO) to begin its gate keeping role as required by the act. Among other ground-breaking protections for persons with disabilities in the Act, is language that states the State must provide a “reasonable” reimbursement rate to community MR/DD providers.
1995 – There is no waiting list for any persons with disabilities waiting to receive services in their communities.
II Post DD reform 1996 +
The Post DD reform era (1996 to present) were marked by an increase in consumer advocacy, the commercialization of the market place and the emergent of many new for profit businesses. There is a need for stronger financial management while addressing the need for high quality services. 39-1802. It is the policy of the state to assist persons who have a developmental disability to have:
(a) services and supports which allow persons opportunities of choice to increase their independence and productivity and integration and inclusion into the community.
(b) asses to a range of services and supports appropriate to such persons: and
(c) the same dignity and respect as persons who do not have a developmental disability.
There are 28 recognized non-profit CDDO’s servicing approximately:
1993 - 4244 people served in a variety of settings
1994 - 5600 people
1995 - 6000 people
1998 - 7300 people
1999 - 7500 people
Kansas Department of Social and Rehabilitation Services (SRS) Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities Division of DD 1998 annual report.
Winfield State Hospital & Training Center was closed in 1998. Its facilities were converted to a veteran’s residential program, as well as for use by corrections. Savings from its closure were re-invested to eliminate the waiting list that had grown since refinancing of the early 1990’s.
Information submitted by:
Ron Pasmore, Ketch
Matt Fletcher, InterHab
Steve Gieber, KCDD